Wednesday, March 9, 2016

Literatura Latinoamericana y Leyendo a Macondo

La literatura latinoamericana no es mi favorita.No se por qué. Quizas la crudeza del lenguaje, la tristeza y desesperanza que muchas veces trasciende en las obras, o la primacia del sexo.. En fin.. No se.  No es que no me guste. Hay que reconocer la maestría de un Vargas Llosa ( aunque últimamente no lo trago por su cruzada contra la República Dominicana) o la genialidad de García Márquez.

En los últimos dos años he tratado de leer más literatura de los países latinos. Por aquello de llenar un hueco en mi educación. En fin que hasta escuché algunas de las charlas de este curso de la Universidad de Houston

Latin American History Through the Novel

Aqui está en Youtube

Pero no lo acabé. Mucho que leer y no mucho tiempo. Pero me introdujo a la prosa de Galeano y a un ensayo interesante de Carlos Fuentes. Algún día quizas lo retomaré. Es interesante ver Latinoamérica a través de los ojos de un no latino.

Mi nuevo proyecto es un menos ambicioso. El curso Leyendo Macondo, un esfuerzo colaborativo de varios profesores de la Universidad de Los Andes.

Aquí esta en Coursera. (El curso acaba el 17 de abril - no se si lo remueven de Coursera o lo dejan accesible).

En preparación o complemento, dos entrevistas a Garcia Márquez:


http://www.rtve.es/alacarta/videos/escritores-en-el-archivo-de-rtve/especial-dedicado-gabriel-garcia-marquez-1982/353148/


Y del curso de la Universidad de los Andes, una linea de tiempo de la vida del autor:


Friday, March 4, 2016

Lo que dice Garcia Marquez de leer literatura

"Debo ser un lector muy ingenuo, porque nunca he pensado que los novelistas quieran decir más de lo que dicen"

Y acerca de los cursos de literatura:
"un curso de literatura no debería ser mucho más que una buena guía de lecturas. Cualquier otra pretensión no sirve para nada más que para asustar a los niños"

Leer el resto aqui

Sunday, January 17, 2016

¿Cómo se Aprende a Amar? Amando

Hoy te pregunté:" ¿Cómo se aprende a amar?"

"Amando" - me dijiste.

Simple. Aprendemos en la acción.

No es la primera vez que tú y yo tenemos esta conversación. Yo diría que la tenemos varias veces al año: cada vez que me siento inadecuada, o cada vez que miro hacia adentro y no me gusta lo que veo, cada vez que me enfrento a mis inseguridades, mis motivaciones imperfectas; cada vez que descubro que el centro de mi vida soy yo y nadie más.

Y no es la primera vez que siento tu voz en lo profundo de mis ser: "Se aprende a amar, amando"

La vida es escuela de amor. No los libros. No las ideas.

Pero todos vivimos y no todos aprendemos a amar. ¿Por qué?

-Porque no vivimos la vida conectados a la Fuente de Amor.
-Porque aunque todos queremos ser amados, amar-y amar bien- parece ir en contra de nuestro instinto.
-Porque tenemos miedo de no ser amados en la misma medida que amamos.
-Porque en el mismo centro de nuestras vidas está nuestro ego- desmesurado, grande- que no  deja lugar para otros.

Lo que no nos damos cuenta es que amor genera amor.
Lo que no me doy cuenta es que el amor genera amor.

Tuesday, May 27, 2014

Notes on Dominum et Vivificantem (Part 5 and Final)


  • Jesus is not with us as a visible human being, but he is present and active in the Church. This is possible through the H.S.
  • The "most complete sacramental expression of the departure of Christ through the mystery of the Cross and Resurrection is the Eucharist." It is through the Eucharist that the H.S. accomplishes that strengthening of the inner man (Eph 3:16). 
  • This giving of life promised by Jesus is accomplished through the Eucharist because the Spirit constantly draws from the wealth of Christ's redemption..
  • "The Church is the visible dispenser of the sacred signs (sacraments), while the H.S. is the invisible dispenser of the life they signify. Through the sacraments the Church accomplishes her salfivic mission to man.
The breadth of the divine life, the Holy Spirit, in its simplest and most common manner, expresses itself and makes itself felt in prayer.
'...if prayer is offered throughout the world, in the past, in the present and in the future, equally widespread is the presence and action of the Holy Spirit, who "breathes" prayer in the heart of man in all the endless range of the most varied situations and conditions... Many times, through the influence of the Spirit, prayer rises from the human heart in spite of prohibitions and persecutions and even official proclamations regarding the non-religious or even atheistic character of public life."
 "The Holy Spirit is the gift that comes into man's heart together with prayer. In prayer he manifests himself first of all and above all as the gift that "helps us in our weakness." 
The Holy Spirit enables us to pray but also guides our prayers from within. "Prayer through the power of the Holy Spirit becomes the ever more mature expression of the new man, who by means of this prayer participates in the divine life."

This following passage is encouraging for a member of a charismatic community
[In] recent years have been seeing a growth in the number of people who, in ever more widespread movements and groups, are giving first place to prayer and seeking in prayer a renewal of their spiritual life. This is a significant and comforting sign, for from this experience there is coming a real contribution to the revival of prayer among the faithful, who have been helped to gain a clearer idea of the Holy Spirit as he who inspires in hearts a profound yearning for holiness. In many individuals and many communities there is a growing awareness that, even with all the rapid progress of technological and scientific civilization, and despite the real conquests and goals attained, man is threatened, humanity is threatened. In the face of this danger, and indeed already experiencing the frightful reality of man's spiritual decadence, individuals and whole communities, guided as it were by an inner sense of faith, are seeking the strength to raise man up again, to save him from himself, from his own errors and mistakes that often make harmful his very conquests. And thus they are discovering prayer, in which the "Spirit who helps us in our weakness"manifests himself. In this way the times in which we are living are bringing the Holy Spirit closer to the many who are returning to prayer."
I wonder if the Pope was thinking of the Charismatic Renewal and charismatic communities when he wrote this.


  • The Pentecost that occurred in the Upper Room is not an event of the past, In a real sense, the Church is always in the Upper Room praying, together with Mary awaiting the coming of the H.S.
  For the Spirit is given to the Church in order that through his power the whole community of the People of God, however widely scattered and diverse, may persevere in hope: that hope in which "we have been saved."288 It is the eschatological hope, the hope of definitive fulfillment in God, the hope of the eternal Kingdom, that is brought about by participation in the life of the Trinity. The Holy Spirit, given to the Apostles as the Counselor, is the guardian and animator of this hope in the heart of the Church.

Monday, May 26, 2014

Notes on Dominum et Vivificantem (Part 4)

The Holy Spirit gives strength to the inner man


  • The Church gives forever witness to the resurrection. In the resurrection the H.S.  revealed itself as the giver of life. The church witness and help the H.S in this life giving mission.
  • The life of man in God is possible through the H.S
Under the influence of the Holy Spirit this inner, "spiritual," man matures and grows strong. Thanks to the divine self- communication, the human spirit which "knows the secrets of man" meets the "Spirit who searches everything, even the depths of God."252 In this Spirit, who is the eternal gift, the Triune God opens himself to man, to the human spirit. The hidden breath of the divine Spirit enables the human spirit to open in its turn before the saving and sanctifying self-opening of God. Through the gift of grace, which comes from the Holy Spirit, man enters a "new life," is brought into the supernatural reality of the divine life itself and becomes a "dwelling-place of the Holy Spirit," a living temple of God.253 For through the Holy Spirit, the Father and the Son come to him and take up their abode with him.254 In the communion of grace with the Trinity, man's "living area" is broadened and raised up to the supernatural level of divine life. Man lives in God and by God: he lives "according to the Spirit," and "sets his mind on the things of the Spirit."

  • This intimate relationship with God in the Spirit helps man to see himself in a new life, to fully realize what it means to be in the image and likeness of God. From Jesus Christ we learn this truth, but it is through the action of the Spirit in our lives that we put it into practice.
  • It is in this way that God transforms the world from within, from inside minds and hearts. 
The Holy Spirit-says the great Basil- "while simple in essence and manifold in his virtues...extends himself without undergoing any diminishing, is present in each subject capable of receiving him as if he were the only one, and gives grace which is sufficient for all."

  • 2Cor 3:17 "Where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom" The H.S alone can ehlp us to free ourselves from the old and new things that determine our behavior (determinisms) because it guides to the knowledge of the "law of the Spirit" which in turn gives us life in Christ. Through life in Christ man discovers the "full measure of man's true freedom".

Also in the ordinary conditions of society, Christians, as witnesses to man's authentic dignity, by their obedience to the Holy Spirit contribute to the manifold "renewal of the face of the earth," working together with their brothers and sisters in order to achieve and put to good use everything that is good, noble and beautiful in the modern progress of civilization, culture, science, technology and the other areas of thought and human activity.264 They do this as disciples of Christ who-as the Council writes-"appointed Lord by his Resurrection...is now at work in the hearts of men through the power of his Spirit. He arouses not only a desire for the age to come but by that very fact, he animates, purifies and strengthens those noble longings too by which the human family strives to make its life more humane and to render the earth submissive to this goal."265 Thus they affirm still more strongly the greatness of man, made in the image and likeness of God, a greatness shown by the mystery of the Incarnation of the Son of God, who "in the fullness of time," by the power of the Holy Spirit, entered into history and manifested himself as true man, he who was begotten before every creature, "through whom are all things and through whom we exist"266


Wednesday, May 21, 2014

Notes on Dominum et Vivifacantem (part 3)

Why is the sin against the Holy Spirit unforgivable?
  • This blasphemy is not necessarily offending the H.S in words but rather," the refusal to accept the salvation which God offers to man through the H.S, working through the power of the cross."
  • "The blasphemy against the H.S. consists... in the radical refusal to accept forgiveness, of which he is the intimate giver and which presupposes the genuine conversion which he brings about in the conscience."
  • This blasphemy is not forgiven because "this non-forgiveness is linked ... to non repentance, ... to the radical refusal to be converted.... It is the the sin committed by the person who claims the right to persist in evil... and who rejects Redemption."
  • "In our time this attitude of mind and heart is perhaps reflected in the loss of the sense of sin" which at the same time is " a loss of the sense of God." 
  • The H.S, who leads the human conscience to know the truth about sin, also leads it to know the truth about the righteousness of Jesus Christ.
  • This last point is related to the idea of justification. This portion of the Catechism shed some light on it Justification
The greatest accomplishment of the H.S is the conception and birth of Jesus Christ. It is he who makes the hypostatic union (the union of the divine and human nature in Jesus Christ) possible. At the moment of Jesus' conception the communication of God with man, through the H.S. reaches its climax.

This encyclical was written when the Church was preparing to celebrate the Jubilee of the year 2000. The pope says in relation to this preparation 
The Church cannot prepare for the Jubilee in any other way than in the Holy Spirit. What was accomplished by the power of the Holy Spirit "in the fullness of time" can only through the Spirit's power now emerge from the memory of the Church.
All is accomplished through and by the power of the Spirit. He makes it possible for us:

  • to be adopted sons/ daughters
  • to have a new life as part of the family of God
  • to partake of the divine nature, our life becomes "permeated" with a divine, supernatural dimension.
  • to have access to the Father in the H.S.
Unfortunately this possibility of sharing in the divine life is met with opposition "in our human reality". 

To a certain degree this opposition comes from the contrasting natures of God and the world. Whether God is invisible, absolute spirit, perfect; man is, by nature, visible, material, and imperfect. This difference in nature doesn't necessarily means conflict, but sin raised them to an act of rebellion and conflict.

This tension between "openness to the action of the Holy Spirit and resistance and opposition to him, to his saving gift" is part of the psychological and ethical reality of every human being. We can also see this same tension manifest itself at a wider, external level in a society. We see this in the prevalent materialism which "radically excludes the presence and action of God, who is spirit in the world and above all in man... It does not accept God's existence, being a system that is essentially and systematically atheist."

Materialism:
  • is both a a theoretical system of thought and, in practical terms, a method of interpreting and evaluating facts, and of evaluating behavior.
  • is the core of Marxism.
  • sees reality as matter because matter is the only form of being.
  • sees religion as an idealistic illusion (because it deals with more than matter)
  • can be seen as a "systematic and logical development' of the opposition between the desires of the flesh and the desires of the spirit (as stated by St Paul)
  • accepts death as the definitive end of human existence ( we see "signs of death": euthanasia, wars, abortion, etc)
But in the midst of these signs of death we Christians are certain that
 the Spirit blows where he wills and that we possess "the first fruits of the Spirit," and that therefore even though we may be subjected to the sufferings of time that passes away, "we groan inwardly as we wait for...the redemption of our bodies,"244 or of all our human essence, which is bodily and spiritual. Yes, we groan, but in an expectation filled with unflagging hope, because it is precisely this human being that God has drawn near to, God who is Spirit. God the Father, "sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh."245 At the culmination of the Paschal Mystery, the Son of God, made man and crucified for the sins of the world, appeared in the midst of his Apostles after the Resurrection, breathed on them and said, "Receive the Holy Spirit." This "breath" continues forever, for "the Spirit helps us in our weakness."246

Tuesday, May 20, 2014

Notes on Dominum et Vivificantem (Part 2)


  • At Pentecost the Holy Spirit is revealed in a new way. It is he who will continue the salvific work that has its roots in the cross.
  • The Holy Spirit "convinces concerning sin" - he becomes the light of consciences, that is, he makes man realize his own evil, and direct him to what is good.
  • In other words, conversion of the human heart is possible by the influence of the Holy Spirit because he leads to contrition, an indispensable condition for forgiveness.
  • We might think of conscience just at that "inner voice" that helps us distinguish between good and evil. In reality, conscience is the voice of God.
  • "Convincing concerning sin" under the influence of the Holy Spirit is accomplished through our conscience.
  • An upright, well formed, conscience call good, good and evil, evil.
  • The Holy Spirit searches the depth of the human soul revealing the "roots of sin are to be found in man's most inner being", in his inner imbalance, his contradictions, the contrary principles at work in him.
  • This constant struggle in the inner world of man is a "laborious effort."
  • This laborious effort marks the path to conversion, where the heart turns away from sin, feels remorse (sorrow for the evil committed), and through the action of the H.S. a person becomes open to forgiveness, to the remission of sin. Suffering has been transformed into salvific love.